Common Biases and Pitfalls in Decision Making


As human beings, we make decisions every day. However, our judgments and choices are not always rational and logical. Our brains are wired to take shortcuts, which often lead us to make mistakes. These mistakes can affect our lives and businesses. In this article, we will discuss common biases and pitfalls in decision making.

Confirmation Bias

Confirmation bias is the tendency to seek out and interpret information in a way that supports our pre-existing beliefs. In other words, we tend to only look for information that confirms what we already believe, and ignore information that contradicts it. This bias can lead to poor decision making. For example, imagine a business owner who believes that their product is the best on the market. They may only look for customer feedback that confirms their belief, and ignore negative feedback. This can lead to a false sense of security, and the business owner may fail to make necessary improvements to their product.

How to Avoid Confirmation Bias

To avoid confirmation bias, it's important to actively seek out information and opinions that contradict your beliefs. You can do this by seeking out alternative viewpoints, engaging in debate, and actively seeking out feedback from customers and colleagues.

Sunk Cost Fallacy

The sunk cost fallacy is the tendency to continue investing in a project or decision, despite evidence that it is no longer profitable or beneficial. This bias is driven by the idea that the money or resources already invested into something will be lost if the project is abandoned. For example, imagine a business owner who has invested a significant amount of money into a failing product. Despite evidence that the product is not performing well, they may continue to invest more money and resources into the project, in an attempt to recoup their losses. This can lead to wasted resources and missed opportunities.

How to Avoid the Sunk Cost Fallacy

To avoid the sunk cost fallacy, it's important to assess projects and decisions objectively, and separate the amount already invested from the potential for future profitability or success. If a project is not performing well, it's important to cut your losses and invest resources elsewhere.

Availability Bias

The availability bias is the tendency to make judgments based on easily available information, rather than a more comprehensive search for relevant information. This bias is driven by our brains' tendency to rely on information that is immediately available, rather than seeking out more complete information. For example, imagine a business owner who is trying to decide whether to invest in a new marketing campaign. They may rely on anecdotal evidence or information that is easily available, rather than conducting a more in-depth study of the market and consumer behavior. This can lead to poor decision making and missed opportunities.

How to Avoid Availability Bias

To avoid availability bias, it's important to seek out a wide range of information sources, and to consider all relevant data and evidence. It's also important to be aware of the limitations of the information available, and to seek out additional information if necessary.

Decision Fatigue

Decision fatigue is the phenomenon of becoming mentally exhausted after having to make a large number of decisions in a short period of time. This can lead to poor decision making and an inability to make good judgments. For example, imagine a business owner who has been working long hours and making a large number of decisions throughout the day. By the end of the day, they may be mentally exhausted and more prone to making mistakes.

How to Avoid Decision Fatigue

To avoid decision fatigue, it's important to take regular breaks throughout the day, and to delegate decision making to others when possible. It's also important to prioritize decisions and focus on the most important tasks first.


In conclusion, biases and pitfalls can have a significant impact on our decision making, and can lead to poor judgments and missed opportunities. By being aware of these biases and actively working to avoid them, we can make better decisions and achieve greater success in our personal and professional lives.